German Participle (Partizip I and II)

There are two participles in German: the present participle (Partizip I) and the past participle (Partizip II).

The present participle (Partizip I) in German

In German, the present participle can be used as an adjective, adverb, or noun. It is formed by adding an -d to the verb to the infinitive. In rarer cases, an e is inserted.

When it is used as an adjective, the present participle is declined in the manner of an adjective: das Kind spielt

When used as an adverb, the present participle remains at the infinitive: das Kind sitzt spielend

When used as a noun then it behaves like an epithet adjective (before the noun): Ein lesender Mann sitzt auf dem Sofa

The past participle (Partizip II) in German

The past participle can be used to form German tenses such as perfect and plu-perfect.

To form the past participle in German there are several rules. It depends on the irregularity of the verb.

For regular verbs the verb starts with ge- and ends with the letter -t.

For irregular verbs, the verb ends with -en and the radical can change its form.

Conjugate a verb in German

The most frequently used verbs in German: sein haben geben finden gehen wissen kommen können liegen sehen